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UK Education

Hello and welcome !!!

Here you will get information on UK education and if there are any queries or questions then you can write on the feedback section of this website.


All undergraduate programmes in UK are of 3 years duration and the final award is normally an Honours award with classification of 1st Class with Honours, 2nd Class Upper with Honours (also referred to as 2:1), 2nd Class Lower with Honours (also referred to as 2:2) and 3rd Class with Honours. In some instances students are unable to successfully complete the required number of credits to qualify for an Honours award, in which case they may be placed in the Pass award without Honours. Many Universities now consider the marks for 2nd year and 3rd year of study and combine these in some weighted proportion to arrive that the final grading. Check for details with individual University. The marks grading normally are; 70%+ for 1st Class, 60 – 69% for Upper 2nd, 50 – 59% for Lower 2nd and 40 – 49% for 3rd Class.

To gain admission to the undergraduate programme from India, students should have completed the 10th and +2 certificates that are normally accepted as equivalent to UK's 'A' Level qualification. Normally a minimum standard is required that may be 60% or 70% aggregate marks in the 12th standard results in order to secure admission to the UG programme. The Universities may also require a certain standard of competency in English language as a prerequisite for admission.

A number of Colleges in UK are affiliated to reputable Universities. They are then in a position to award the degrees of reputable Universities. This may be an important consideration in your choice of the College or University


Most postgraduate programmes in the UK are of 1 year full-time duration. This includes programmes such as MBA, MSc, MA etc. Most Universities also offer MRes (Masters by Research) and MPhil (Master of Philosophy) degrees. These are also mainly of 1 year duration full-time although this length is variable in some Universities so it is important to find out the details. The key question to ask is the length of the course for tuition fees paying purpose. In general all taught Master's programme comprise of 180 credits that is generally split between the taught modules (120 credits) and a dissertation/project (60 credits). The MRes is generally weighted more heavily towards the research element in the dissertation (120 credits) and the remainder (60 credits) is through taught modules. The MPhil is fully by research and may be used as a first stage for going on to the next level for a PhD. Normally there is an option to either complete MPhil or to use the work completed towards a 'conversion' paper to work towards a PhD.

For all three categories of PG study there is a strong element of dissertation for which a research proposal is normally required. This proposal forms the basis on which the research will develop and also informs the Programme Director for allocation of appropriate supervisor. The research component (dissertation) of the PG programme is extremely important as it entails the formative and summative stages of the Masters level learning. It is extremely important that due care is placed at this stage to the process and choice of the selected topic. Note that the successful completion of the taught stages of the PG programme may only gain you a PG Certificate (normally 60 credits) or PG Diploma (normally 120 credits), however to attain Master’s qualification you must successfully complete the project/dissertation stage (another 60 credits). The dissertation is normally 20,000 word long piece of work although the length may vary from University to University.

Presentation slides on Research Methods and Techniques that will help to formulate a good research proposal.

What is Research?

  • Question is what it is not?
    • Re-packaging of old ideas
    • Mere accumulation of fact is
  • These are an exercise in information gathering
    • Self-enlightenment
    • Fact finding and transcribing
  • All above can be used for literature search

Research is

  • Process to solve problems systematically
  • Pushing back the boundaries of existing knowledge
  • Using analytical and/or argumentative tools towards a systematic quest for undiscovered truth

Characteristics of Research

  • Question in the mind of the researcher
  • Identification of the problem
  • Plan to solve the problem
  • Working out the appropriate sub-problems
  • Direction through appropriate hypothesis
  • Dealing with facts and their meaning
  • Cyclic process of above

Tools for Research

  • The library, web sites etc
  • Measurement – this may be analytical, statistical etc
  • Computers to solve problems
  • Validity of measurement
  • face, criterion, content, construct, internal, external

Literature review

  • Purpose
  • Begin search
  • Writing the section
  • Review the literature – do not re-write it
  • Showing relatedness/difference to your research


  • Understanding how knowledge is discovered.
    • Deductive logic – old e.g. earth is flat !
    • Inductive reasoning or also called ‘scientific’
  • Scientific method
    • Begins with observation
    • Identify a problem
    • Gather data with hope to resolve problem
    • Hypothesising the means and aid
    • Empirically testing the data


  • Operational framework – looking at facts
  • Data types
    • Written records of events/happenings
    • Observations directly made – report facts
    • Observation
      • numerical, mathematical, statistical
    • Comparison of data – differences/likeness
  • Historical
    • data that is documentary or literary
  • Descriptive survey
    • Derived from observational situations
  • Analytical Survey
    • Quantitative data
  • Experimental
    • Two separate groups compared

Methodology - others

  • Action research – emphasis on doing
  • Case and Field study – social community groups
  • Correlational research – degree of relationship
  • Developmental – longitudinal study
  • Causal Comparative – present conditions tested against previous causal factors

Research proposal

  • The problem and context
  • Review related literature
  • The data – treatment and interpretation
    • Methodology
    • Problem and sub-problems
  • Qualifications of researcher/s
  • Outline of proposed study
  • Selected bibliography

Research report / Dissertation

  • Preliminaries
    • Title page, Declaration, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures
  • Chapters
    • The problem and its setting
    • The review of related literature
    • Collection of data and analysis
    • The results and its interpretation
    • Testing against hypothesis
    • Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Bibliography/Reference
  • Appendices

If you would like to see an example of a research proposal then write to us

Best wishes in your present and future endeavours.